AMUKKARË (Root) - Üº‚èó£
Amukkar¡ is the dried root of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal Syn. Physalis somnifera L., P. flexuosa L., P. arborescense DC. (Fam. Solanaceae), a perennial shrub, found in waste land, cultivated fields and open grounds throughout India. It is also cultivated in certain areas of Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. Roots are collected in winter, washed and cut into small pieces.The dried root is subjected to purification process before use. It grows in Mullai and Marutham thi¸ai.
Tamil : Acuvakanthi (Ü²õè‰F), Amukkar¡ Ki¾a´ku (Üº‚èó£ Aöƒ°)
Assamese : Ashvagandha
Bengali : Ashvagandha
Gujrati : Asgandha
Hindi : Asgandh
Kannada : Angarberu, Hiremaddina- gida
Kashmiri : Asagandh
Malayalam : Amukkuram
Marathi : Asagandha, Askagandha
Oriya : Aswagandha
Punjabi : Asgandh
Sanskrit : Asvagandha, Hayagandha, Vajigandha
Telugu : Pennerugadda
Urdu : Asgand
Roots straight, unbranched, thickness varying with age, roots bear fibre-like secondary roots, outer surface buff to grey-yellow with longitudinal wrinkles; crown consists of remains of variously thickened stem bases; fracture short and uneven; odour characteristic; taste bitter and acrid.
Transverse section of root shows cork exfoliated or crushed; when present rectangular, radially flattened and non-lignified; cork cambium 2 to 4 diffused rows of cells; secondary cortex about twenty layers of compact parenchymatous cells mostly filled with starch grains; phloem consists of sieve tubes, companion cells, phloem parenchyma; cambium 4 or 5 rows of tangentially elongated cells; xylem hard forming a closed vascular ring separated by multiseriate medullary rays.
Yellowish grey; shows cork cells, parenchyma cells, tracheids, vessels, fibres and starch grains.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH
Foreign matter Not more than 2 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2.
Total Ash Not more than 7 per cent, Appendix 2.2.3.
Acid-insoluble ash Not more than 1 per cent, Appendix 2.2.4.
Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 15 per cent, Appendix 2.2.6.
Water-soluble extractive Not less than 27 per cent, Appendix 2.2.7.
HPLC conditions for the separation of withaferin A in Alcohol extract.
Mobile phase : n- Hexane: Isopropanol (9:1)
Flow rate : 0.2 ml./min.
Column : Porasil A coiled column (1.2ft. x 1/8 inch)
Detector : UV at 225 nm
T.L.C. of Petroleum ether soluble fraction of Alcohol extract on an aluminium plate precoated with silica gel 60 F254 (E.Merck) 0.2 mm. thickness using Petroleum ether (80 -100° C): Chloroform (1:1) spraying with 10% Methanolic Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate for ten minutes at 105ºC shows two spots at Rf. 0.17 (violet) and 0.92 (greyish brown).
Withanolides- withaferin A, withanone, withanolides I, II, III, III A, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, WS-I, P and S, withasomidienone, cuscohygrine, anahygrine, tropine, pseudotropine, anaferine, isopellatierine, 3- tropyltigloate.
PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS
Cuvai : Kaippu (¬èŠ¹)
Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°)
V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹)
Pirivu : K¡rppu (è£˜Š¹)
Ceykai : Ë¸maiperukki (Ý‡¬ñªð¼‚A), Ci¼un¢rperukki (CÁc˜ªð¼‚A), K¡yaka¼pam¡kki (è£òèŸðñ£‚A), U¼akkamu¸·¡kki (àø‚èº‡ì£‚A), Uram¡kki (àóñ£‚A), U·alveppaka¼¼i (àì™ªõŠðèŸP), U·a¼t®¼¼i (àìŸ«îŸP), V¢kkamurukki (i‚èº¼‚A)
Amukkar¡c C£ra¸am (Üº‚èó£„ Åóí‹), Iracakanthi Me¾uku (Þóêè‰F ªñ¿°), I·ivall¡thi Me¾uku (Þ®õ™ô£F ªñ¿°), Kantaka Irac¡yaºam (è‰îè Þóê£òù‹), Mak¡ Ól¡thi Ku½ikai (ñè£ ãô£F °O¬è), Mak¡vall¡ti I½akam (ñè£õ™ô£F Þ÷è‹), Nanthi Me¾uku (ï‰F ªñ¿°), N¡rathtai I½akam (ï£óˆ¬î Þ÷è‹), Pa¼a´kippa··ai Irac¡yaºam (ðøƒAŠð†¬ì Þóê£òù‹)
PAIN,, FEVER,ECZEMA,VATHA DISEASES,SEXUAL PROBLEMS
DOSE - Powder 3 - 6 g