CUKKU (Dried Rhizome) - ²‚°
Cukku is the dried rhizome of Zingiber officinale Rosc. (Fam. Zingiberaceae), widely cultivated in India; rhizomes dug in January - February, buds and roots removed, soaked overnight in water, decorticated and some times treated with lime and dried. It grows in Ku¼iµci and Marutham thi¸ai.
Tamil : Cu¸·i (²‡®), Ularnta Iµci (àô˜‰î Þ…C), V®rkkompu («õ˜‚ªè£‹¹), Vi·am£·iya Amirtam (MìÍ®ò ÜI˜î‹)
Assamese : Adasuth, Aadar shuth
Bengali : Suntha, Sunthi
English : Ginger root, Ginger
Gujrati : Sunth, Sundh, Suntha
Hindi : Sonth
Kannada : Shunthi
Kashmiri : Shonth
Malayalam : Chukku
Marathi : Sunth
Oriya : Sunthi
Punjabi : Sund
Sanskrit : Ardraka, Ausadha, Mahausadha, Visvabhesaja, Srngavera, Visva, Visvausadha
Telugu : Sonthi, Sunti
Urdu : Sonth, Zanjabeel
Rhizome, laterally compressed bearing short, flattish, ovate, oblique, branches on upper side each having at its apex a depressed scar, pieces about 5 to15 cm. long, 1.5 to 6.5 cm. wide usually 3 to 4 cm. and 1 to 1.5 cm. thick; externally buff coloured showing longitudinal striations and occasional loose fibres; fracture short, smooth, transverse surface exhibiting narrow cortex, (about one-third of radius) a well-marked endodermis, a wide stele showing numerous scattered fibro-vascular bundles and yellow secreting cells when examined under 10x lens; odour agreeable and aromatic; taste agreeable and pungent.
Transverse section of rhizome shows cortex of isodiametric thin-walled parenchyma with scattered vascular strands and numerous isodiametric idioblasts, about 40 to 80 µm in diameter containing a yellowish to reddish-brown oleo-resin; endodermis slightly thick walled, free from starch; immediately inside endodermis a row of nearly continuous collateral bundles usually without fibres, stele of thin-walled, parenchyma cells, arranged radially around numerous scattered, collateral vascular bundles, each consisting of a few unlignified, reticulate or spiral vessels upto about 70 µm in diameter; a group of phloem cells, unlignified, thin-walled; septate fibres upto about 30 µm wide and 600 µm long with small oblique slit like pits present; numerous scattered idioblasts, similar those of cortex, and associated with vascular bundles, also present; idioblasts about 8 to 20 µm wide and upto 130 µm long with dark reddish-brown contents; in single or in axial rows, adjacent to vessels, present; parenchyma of cortex and stele packed with flattened, rectangular, ovate starch grains upto 60 µm long about 25 µm wide and 7µm thick, marked by fine concentric striations.
Cream; shows groups of polygonal thin walled parenchyma cells; yellowish to reddish brown oleo-resin cells; unlignified fibres, vessels with annular, reticulate or spiral thickening; numerous round to oval starch grains upto 60 µm long, about 25 µm wide and 7 ìm thick marked by fine concentric striations.
IDENTITY, PURITY AND STRENGTH
Foreign matter Not more than 1 per cent, Appendix 2.2.2.
Total Ash Not more than 6 per cent, Appendix 2.2.3.
Water soluble ash Not more than 1.5 per cent, Appendix 2.2.5.
Alcohol-soluble extractive Not less than 3 per cent, Appendix 2.2.6.
Water-soluble extractive Not less than 10 per cent, Appendix 2.2.7.
T.L.C. of the Alcoholic extract on silica gel 'G' plate using n-Hexane: Diethyl ether (4:6) v/v shows two spots under (UV light 366 nm) at Rf. 0.55 and 0.60 (both sky blue). On exposure to iodine vapours seven spots appear at Rf. 0.23, 0.27, 0.43, 0.50, 0.55,0.81 and 0.94(all yellow). On spraying with Vanillin- Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate, for five minutes at 105°C eight spots appear at Rf. 0.23 (blackish brown), 0.27 (blackish brown), 0.37 (violet), 0.50 (violet), 0.60 (brown), 0.67 (brown), 0.81 (violet) and 0.94 (violet).
Gingerols, shogaols, dihydrogingerol, gingerdione, hexahydrocurcumin and desmethyl hexahydrocurcumin, á -zingiberene, ß-sesquiphellandrene, ar-curcumene, lipids, proteins, fats, waxes, and starch.
PROPERTIES AND ACTIONS
Cuvai : K¡rppu (è£˜Š¹)
Gu¸am : Ilaku (Þô°), Noymai (ªï£Œ¬ñ)
V¢rium : Veppam (ªõŠð‹)
Pirivu : K¡rppu (è£˜Š¹)
Ceykai : Aka··uv¡yvaka¼¼i (Üè†´õ£ŒõèŸP), Pacitt¢t£¸·i (ðCˆbÉ‡®), Veppamu¸·¡kki (ªõŠðº‡ì£‚A)
Cukku Tailam (²‚° ¬îô‹), Ól¡tic C£ra¸aÆ (ãô£F„ Åóí‹), Nilav¡kaic C£ra¸am (Gôõ£¬è„ Åóí‹), Paµcat¢p¡kkiºi C£ra¸am (ð…êbð£‚AQ Åóí‹), P¡vaºakka·ukk¡y (ð£õù‚è´‚è£Œ), Tayircu¸·icc£ra¸am (îJ˜²‡®„Åóí‹), Tirika·ukuc C£ra¸am (FKè´°„ Åóí‹)
DOSE - Powder 500 mg - 1g